Total Space

Note: Total Space includes both Used Space (Data + Index) and Unused Space (Free up).

SQL Server allocate unused space (free up) so it does not have to consistently allocate more space. Allocating more space is a very resource intensive process.

SELECT 
    t.NAME AS TableName,
    p.rows AS RowCounts,
    CAST(ROUND(((SUM(a.total_pages) * 8) / 1024.00), 2) AS NUMERIC(36, 2)) AS TotalSpaceMB
FROM 
    sys.tables t
INNER JOIN      
    sys.indexes i ON t.OBJECT_ID = i.object_id
INNER JOIN 
    sys.partitions p ON i.object_id = p.OBJECT_ID AND i.index_id = p.index_id
INNER JOIN 
    sys.allocation_units a ON p.partition_id = a.container_id
LEFT OUTER JOIN 
    sys.schemas s ON t.schema_id = s.schema_id
WHERE 
    t.is_ms_shipped = 0
    AND 
    i.OBJECT_ID > 255 
GROUP BY 
    t.Name, s.Name, p.Rows
ORDER BY 
    3 DESC

Total Space – Used Space = Unused Space

Note: Used Space includes Data Space and Index Space.

TotalSpace = UsedSpace + UnusedSpace

UsedSpace = Data + Index

SELECT 
    t.NAME AS TableName,
    s.Name AS SchemaName,
    p.rows AS RowCounts,
    CAST(ROUND(((SUM(a.total_pages) * 8) / 1024.00), 2) AS NUMERIC(36, 2)) AS TotalSpaceMB,
    CAST(ROUND(((SUM(a.used_pages) * 8) / 1024.00), 2) AS NUMERIC(36, 2)) AS UsedSpaceMB, 
    CAST(ROUND(((SUM(a.total_pages) - SUM(a.used_pages)) * 8) / 1024.00, 2) AS NUMERIC(36, 2)) AS UnusedSpaceMB
FROM 
    sys.tables t
INNER JOIN      
    sys.indexes i ON t.OBJECT_ID = i.object_id
INNER JOIN 
    sys.partitions p ON i.object_id = p.OBJECT_ID AND i.index_id = p.index_id
INNER JOIN 
    sys.allocation_units a ON p.partition_id = a.container_id
LEFT OUTER JOIN 
    sys.schemas s ON t.schema_id = s.schema_id
WHERE 
    t.NAME NOT LIKE 'dt%' 
    AND t.is_ms_shipped = 0
    AND i.OBJECT_ID > 255 
GROUP BY 
    t.Name, s.Name, p.Rows
ORDER BY 
    t.Name

Unused Space (Free up Space)

Database size can be humongous with a heavy flow of database transactions. The log file will store the transaction log if your database is in full recovery model. Used space will be neither released nor flushed by log file until the next Log backup and database file size will grow up with the log.

When any transaction blocks or stuck any database transactions, database log file size can be rapidly increased and cross the expected output file size to handle this issue. The transaction lock problem can arise with Query performance and the same can happen with the client-side application also. When transactions are truncated and log backup is generated free space will be available. When any bulky Delete, DROP or Truncate operation is executed on the table, there can be a large amount of free space made available for data files. Free space can also be reclaimed by dropping a huge index also.

sp_spaceused

Note: This query is the most detailed. It breaks out the Used space to Data Space and Index Space.

ReservedSpace = DataSpace + IndexSize + UnusedSpace

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#SpaceUsed') IS NOT NULL
	DROP TABLE #SpaceUsed

CREATE TABLE #SpaceUsed (
	 TableName sysname
	,NumRows BIGINT
	,ReservedSpace VARCHAR(50)
	,DataSpace VARCHAR(50)
	,IndexSize VARCHAR(50)
	,UnusedSpace VARCHAR(50)
	) 

DECLARE @str VARCHAR(500)
SET @str =  'exec sp_spaceused ''?'''
INSERT INTO #SpaceUsed 
EXEC sp_msforeachtable @command1=@str

SELECT TableName, NumRows, 
CONVERT(numeric(18,0),REPLACE(ReservedSpace,' KB','')) / 1024 as ReservedSpace_MB,
CONVERT(numeric(18,0),REPLACE(DataSpace,' KB','')) / 1024 as DataSpace_MB,
CONVERT(numeric(18,0),REPLACE(IndexSize,' KB','')) / 1024 as IndexSpace_MB,
CONVERT(numeric(18,0),REPLACE(UnusedSpace,' KB','')) / 1024 as UnusedSpace_MB
FROM #SpaceUsed
ORDER BY ReservedSpace_MB desc

Sources:

https://www.mssqltips.com/sqlservertip/1177/determining-space-used-for-all-tables-in-a-sql-server-database/

Last modified: February 27, 2021

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